Tailoring Treatment with Tirofiban in Patients Showing Resistance to Aspirin and/or Resistance to Clopidogrel (3T/2R). Rationale for the Study and Protocol Design

  • Marco ValgimigliEmail author
  • Gianluca Campo
  • Nicoletta de Cesare
  • Pascal Vranckx
  • Martial Hamon
  • Dominick J. Angiolillo
  • Manel Sabatè
  • Fabrizio Ferrari
  • Alessandro Furgieri
  • Carlo Tumscitz
  • Alessandra Repetto
  • Salvatore Colangelo
  • Emanuele Meliga
  • Moh’d Kubbajeh
  • Giovanni Parrinello
  • Gianfranco Percoco
  • Roberto Ferrari



To assess whether glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition using tirofiban in low risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction compared to standard care in poor responders to aspirin and/or clopidogrel.


We will enroll patients at ten European sites or more to participate in the Tailoring Treatment with Tirofiban in patients showing Resistance to aspirin and/or Resistance to clopidogrel (3T/2R) study with a pre-specified sample size of 240 patients out of 1,100 or more who will undergo screening. The primary outcome measure is troponin I or T elevation ratio at least three times the upper limit of normal within 48 h after completion of the PCI.


The results of 3T/2R study will evaluate whether tailored intensification of anti-platelet treatment based on poor individual response to oral anti-platelet agents may modulate the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction during PCI. Our findings attempt at unraveling a new era of individualized anti-platelet treatment through the use of point-of-care assessment.

Key words

Aspirin resistance Clopidogrel resistance Tirofiban Platelet inhibition 


Conflicts of interests

This study was co-supported by an unrestricted grant from Merck, USA and IROKO Pharmaceuticals, USA.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Valgimigli
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gianluca Campo
    • 1
  • Nicoletta de Cesare
    • 3
  • Pascal Vranckx
    • 4
  • Martial Hamon
    • 5
  • Dominick J. Angiolillo
    • 6
  • Manel Sabatè
    • 7
  • Fabrizio Ferrari
    • 1
  • Alessandro Furgieri
    • 8
  • Carlo Tumscitz
    • 9
  • Alessandra Repetto
    • 10
  • Salvatore Colangelo
    • 11
  • Emanuele Meliga
    • 12
  • Moh’d Kubbajeh
    • 13
  • Giovanni Parrinello
    • 14
  • Gianfranco Percoco
    • 13
  • Roberto Ferrari
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Ferrara, Cardiovascular InstituteArcispedale S. Anna HospitalFerraraItaly
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research Centre, Salvatore Maugeri FoundationIRCCSGussago (BS)Italy
  3. 3.Policlinico S. MarcoZingonia (BG)Italy
  4. 4.Virga JesseziekenhuisHasseltBelgium
  5. 5.University Hospital of CaenNormandyFrance
  6. 6.Division of Cardiology, College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaJacksonvilleUSA
  7. 7.Interventional Cardiology Unit, Cardiology DepartmentSaint Paul University HospitalBarcelonaSpain
  8. 8.Department of Medical and Surgical CardiologyVilla Maria Cecilia HospitalCotignola (RA)Italy
  9. 9.Department of CardiologyGuglielmo da Saliceto HospitalPiacenzaItaly
  10. 10.Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Policlinico S. MatteoPaviaItaly
  11. 11.Cardiovascular Intervention LaboratorySan Giovanni Bosco HospitalTurinItaly
  12. 12.Unit of CardiologyAzienda Ospedaliera S. Giovanni BattistaTurinItaly
  13. 13.CardiologyLagosanto HospitalLagosantoItaly
  14. 14.Medical Statistics UnitUniversity of BresciaBresciaItaly

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