Sulfhydryl reagents and cAMP-dependent kinase increase the sensitivity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in hepatocytes.

  1. G S Bird,
  2. G M Burgess and
  3. J W Putney, Jr
  1. Calcium Regulation Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Traingle Park, North Carolina 27709.

    Abstract

    Sulfhydryl reagents such as tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) have been shown to increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in rat hepatocytes in a way that resembles responses to Ca(2+)-mobilizing hormones (Saikada, I., Thomas, A. P., and Farber, J. L. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 717-722; Rooney, T. A., Renard, D. C., Sass, E. J., and Thomas, A. P. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 12272-12282) and to increase the amount of Ca2+ released by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP3) from permeable rat liver cells (Rooney et al., 1991, op. cit.; Missiaen, L., Taylor, C. W., and Berridge, M. J. (1991) Nature 352, 241-244; Renard, D. C., Seitz, M. B., and Thomas, A. P. (1992) Biochem. J. 284, 507-512). The effects of sulfhydryl reagents were studied in fura-2-injected rat and guinea pig hepatocytes and compared with the actions of cAMP (Burgess, G. M., Bird, G. St. J., Obie, J. F., and Putney, J. W., Jr. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 4772-4781). In rat liver cells, the increases in [Ca2+]i induced by TBHP and thimerosal were prevented by microinjection of the cells with the (1,4,5)IP3 receptor antagonist heparin. In guinea pig hepatocytes, TBHP was not able to increase [Ca2+]i unless the cells were pretreated with angiotensin II to raise endogenous levels of (1,4,5)IP3 or were first injected with a sub-threshold concentration of inositol 2,4,5-trisphosphate ((2,4,5)IP3). The responses to TBHP in (2,4,5)IP3-injected guinea pig cells were also blocked by heparin. In many respects, the actions of TBHP appeared to be similar to those of cAMP, which has previously been shown to increase sensitivity to (1,4,5)IP3 in intact guinea pig hepatocytes (Burgess et al., 1991, op. cit.). TBHP also mimicked the effect of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA) in permeabilized guinea pig hepatocytes by increasing the amount of Ca2+ released by (1,4,5)IP3. The responses to TBHP and cAMP in (2,4,5)IP3-injected guinea pig hepatocytes differed, however, in that the increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by elevating intracellular cAMP was greatly reduced by Wiptide, an inhibitor of PKA, while Wiptide had no effect on the Ca2+ transients induced by TBHP. This provides evidence that the sensitizing effect of TBHP is not mediated by PKA and is more likely to be a direct effect on the inositol trisphosphate receptor. It is possible, however, that the sulfhydryl reagents and PKA act on a common regulatory site on the receptor protein.

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